- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
The first round of Egypt’s presidential election ended on May 24 with a voter turnout somewhat less impressive than expected, but apparently similar to the 50-60 percent turnout in the parliamentary elections six months ago. While there were some violations of the law—campaigning on voting day, attempting to influence voters inside polling places, vote buying—so far it does not appear they were extensive. But sometimes reports of fraud do not surface immediately, so caution is in order.
Now begins the vote counting, which will take place inside the polling places themselves—unlike the chaotic process of counting in central locations used during the parliamentary elections—supervised by the same judges who oversaw the voting. Each of the 13,000 judges will have an average of 2,000 or so votes for which to account, and will then transfer the vote tallies in tamper-proof packages to the electoral authorities for tabulation. The judge will also give a signed original of the vote tally to any candidate agent who witnesses the counting. As the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) is the only campaign likely to have an agent in every or nearly every polling place, it will thus be the only party in a position to challenge the official count. The Supreme Presidential Elections Committee (SPEC) is expected to announce results on May 29.
There is a small possibility—I would give it 10 percent—that there will be a clear victor, with a majority of votes, in the first round. That would most likely be FJP candidate Mohammed Morsy who, however uncharismatic, has an impressive campaign machine in the Muslim Brotherhood. A first round majority would be a shock to Egyptians and would mean a turnover of authority from the SCAF very soon. More likely, the top two vote getters will go to a runoff June 16-17, with a final result announced by June 21. The SCAF has pledged to swear in the new president and relinquish executive powers to him before July 1, and as of now there is every reason to believe that will happen.
If there is a second round, it is likely to be even more of a nail-biter than the first one. If the two candidates are Morsy-Shafik or Morsy-Moussa, it will be a clear Islamist-secularist face off. If it is Morsy-Aboul Fotouh (which the Brotherhood expects and dreads), it will be a confrontation between two slightly different Islamist trends. A Moussa-Shafik runoff is theoretically possible but seems unlikely; after seeing how the parliamentary elections went, can anyone believe that there will not be at least one Islamist in the runoff? In any case, the stakes will be high and the likelihood of violations and even violence will be greater than in round one.
The really troubling possibility is a tight race in the runoff—or indeed in the first round—that comes down to a couple of percentage points. According to Article 28 of the interim constitution, the SPEC’s decisions “will be final and carry the force of law, and will not subject to objections from any party.” In other words, the electoral commission’s decisions cannot be challenged in court. That could be trouble if the race is close and SPEC decisions about the validity of certain votes or of the vote count are questioned. But perhaps I am borrowing trouble. Let’s hope that, whatever the result, Egyptians are satisfied that the election reflected the will of the voters, as was the case with the parliamentary elections.
Michele Dunne is director of the Atlantic Council's Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East.
Photo Credit: Reuters
Trackback URL for this post:
EgyptSource, a project of the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, follows Egypt’s transition and provides a platform for Egyptian perspectives on the major issues – economic, political, legal, religious and human rights – that are at stake in the post-Mubarak era.
If you are interested in submitting an article for publication on EgyptSource, please send an inquiry via email with a short outline of your idea.
The views expressed in EgyptSource are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Atlantic Council, its staff, or its supporters.
Follow us on Twitter: @EgyptSource
Click here to sign up for the weekly EgyptSource newsletter.
Faces of Egypt
Journalist and videographer Abanoub Emad explains the drive behind his work: “I want to cover the truth..If it was just a job for me I wouldn't risk my life, but this is what I want to do…and this is what differentiates the quality of work. You can tell who's doing it for the sake of doing it, and who's doing it because it's what they love to do”
At twenty-two, Amr El Salanekly has won the 2012 Clinton Global Initiative fellowship, co-founded a social incubator and an educational platform for underprivileged kids, turned down a job with Bangladeshi Nobel Laureate Mohammad Yunus’ Grameen Bank, and raised hundreds of thousands of Egyptian pounds for community projects in Egypt.
Check out the rest of the Faces of the New Egypt series here.
About the Contributors
Alaa Al Aswany, the Arab world's bestselling novelist, is the author of The Yacoubian Building, Chicago, and Friendly Fire. His work is published in thirty-one languages worldwide. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Yussef Auf is an Egyptian judge and 2012 Humphrey Fellow at American University’s Washington College of Law. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Constitutional Law and Political Systems at Cairo University. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Haitham Tabei is a special correspondent for the Washington Post and Asharq Saudi newspaper in Cairo.
Read his EgyptSource posts here.
- The Arabist
- Abu Aardvark (Marc Lynch)
- A Sense of Belonging
- Dalia Ziada
- Daniel W. Drezner
- Democracy Digest
- The Egypt Report
- Egyptian Chronicles
- Felix Arabia
- Foreign Policy Passport
- Foreign Policy Association
- Hossam El-Hamalawy
- MEI Editor’s Blog
- Middle East Post
- Middle East Progress (CAP)
- POMED Wire
- Rantings of a Sandmonkey