- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
Tahrir has witnessed countless clashes over the past year and a half, and today there is once again the need to set up a field hospital to treat the wounded, as harsh words are exchanged, conflicting slogans are chanted and men pelt stones at one another. The clash is not occurring between protesters and the Central Security Forces (CSF) or the military police, but rather is yet another occurrence of a clash taking place between protesters themselves as yet another struggle for ownership of Tahrir breaks out.
As Morsi’s first 100 days in office came to a close, liberals, leftists and nationalist parties came together with one call - to take to Tahrir on Friday October 12 in what was dubbed ‘Accountability Friday.’ Issuing a joint statement, the parties and movements made several demands, which included calling for a new Constituent Assembly that truly represents Egyptians, as well as for the goals of the January 25 uprising to be fulfilled. The protesters also called for “justice for the martyrs”. While the list of demands was dominated by overtones of disappointment in Morsi’s performance to date, Mohamed al-Baradei’s Constitution Party specifically instructed its supporters not to engage in anti-Morsi or anti-Brotherhood rhetoric. Regardless, there have been reports of anti-Morsi chants in Tahrir.
With an acquittal announced for all defendants in the infamous Camel Battle trial, the bloodiest day seen in the 18 day uprising, expectations for the October 12 protest were heightened. The verdict is one in a long string of many acquittals, with no one held accountable for the deaths of hundreds of Egyptian protesters. Rather than just galvanize original calls to protest, it also prompted the Muslim Brotherhood to put out a statement announcing they would also “respond to calls for million-man protest marches around the country.”
As the various protests converged on Tahrir, skirmishes were reported, with fistfights breaking out between anti and pro-Morsi supporters, amid news that members of the Revolutionary Socialists group trying to prevent Brotherhood members from entering the square. It culminated with protesters attacking and tearing down the platform erected by presidential candidate Hamdeen Sabahi’s supporters. Reports emerged that pro-Brotherhood supporters were behind the attack, but the organization has denied these claims.
Photo: Mahmoud Salem
On Twitter, Brotherhood leader Essam al-Erian put out a call to the Brotherhood supporters in Tahrir to march to the High Court. Despite that, the official Muslim Brotherhood was quick to disassociate itself from the clashes claiming on Twitter that their members were not involved. Brotherhood spokesman Mahmoud Ghozlan echoed this statement saying that its members were not heading to Tahrir until after afternoon prayers, as well as denying responsibility for the attack on the platform. He stated, "Our members haven’t attacked anyone, the people fighting are supporters of the president."
Regardless, in a disturbing déjà vu, activists have begun to put out calls for medical supplies, and a Twitter account that often coordinates these activities has sprung back into action, and as the situation intensifies, it becomes impossible to determine a protester’s political affiliation. According to initial reports from the Ministry of Health at least 12 have been injured in the clashes.
Photo: Mahmoud Salem
Many have questioned the Brotherhood’s decision to call for a protest in the same location, labeling it an attempt to sabotage Accountability Friday. Others, among them Ahmed Khairy, the spokesperson of the liberal Free Egyptians Party, also questioned the logic behind the Brotherhood taking to Tahrir, the very symbol of resistance in Egypt, when they are for all intents and purposes, the nation’s ruling party. A struggle to control Tahrir continues to emerge in Cairo, and is yet another example of the Brotherhood unable to make a definitive choice between politics and protest. As attention turns once again to clashes in Tahrir, one of the driving forces behind the call to protest - Egypt's draft constitution - is again forgotten.
Video of the stage in Tahrir being dismantled:
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Faces of Egypt
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At twenty-two, Amr El Salanekly has won the 2012 Clinton Global Initiative fellowship, co-founded a social incubator and an educational platform for underprivileged kids, turned down a job with Bangladeshi Nobel Laureate Mohammad Yunus’ Grameen Bank, and raised hundreds of thousands of Egyptian pounds for community projects in Egypt.
Check out the rest of the Faces of the New Egypt series here.
About the Contributors
Alaa Al Aswany, the Arab world's bestselling novelist, is the author of The Yacoubian Building, Chicago, and Friendly Fire. His work is published in thirty-one languages worldwide. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Yussef Auf is an Egyptian judge and 2012 Humphrey Fellow at American University’s Washington College of Law. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Constitutional Law and Political Systems at Cairo University. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Haitham Tabei is a special correspondent for the Washington Post and Asharq Saudi newspaper in Cairo.
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