- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
SCAF member Major General Adel Amara held a televised press conference on December 19 after overnight clashes in Tahrir Square, in which thousands of Central Security Forces encircled a crowd of outnumbered and unarmed protesters with batons. As security forces stormed the square spraying pellets, live bullets and eventually tear gas, protesters were finally forced to vacate.
Video taken at the scene shows an asymmetric fight between unarmed civilians and security forces in riot gear.
However, Major General Amara told a very different story in the SCAF's official press conference, in which he depicted protesters as armed instigators and vandals while lavishing praise on soldiers as the "heroes who bore the unbearable." Rather than the standard SCAF preamble offering condolences to victims, Amara immediately launched into a defensive tirade condemning the destruction of private property by protesters, whom he accused of attacking soldiers with bricks, Molotov cocktails, and butane pipes, while he commended military forces for showing "restraint." Amara complained that protesters preemptively attacked soldiers who had been trying to construct barriers and fences around the square to restore security, and proceeded to set fire to the Scientific Center, a rare books library. Amara asked, "How could an Egyptian burn the most important cultural heritage in the world."
Amara insisted security forces were only acting in self-defense. "The law allows these forces to defend themselves when they are attacked with Molotovs. Faced with the arson of public buildings, should we stand by idly and watch?" Amara asked.
Reverting to the SCAF's tired counter-revolutionary trope, Amara alluded to a "systematic plan to bring Egypt down." He allowed time for three questions but answered none of them. Instead, Amara interrupted the session to read an intelligence brief handed to him at the podium, which supposedly details a plot to set the Parliament building on fire on December 19. The intelligence alert was delivered as a journalist demanded that the military apologize to all Egyptian women after female protesters were subjected to humiliating and violent assaults by soldiers in Tahrir Square.
The SCAF's attempt to portray protesters as violent saboteurs is wearing paper thin under mounting evidence from online activists and other eyewitnesses who reported a sustained and asymmetric assault against primarily unarmed civilians. Meanwhile, a statement by U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on December 19, which called for restraint on both sides, suggested that the Obama administration may be buying the SCAF's version of the story.
While Clinton urged “Egyptian security forces to respect and protect the universal rights of all Egyptians, including the rights to peaceful free expression and assembly," she also called on "those who are protesting [to] do so peacefully and refrain from acts of violence."
But it's a little too late to call for mutual restraint in an unfair fight, in which one side has teargas and tanks and the other has, well, Twitter.
Photo Credit: al-Youm al-Saba'a
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EgyptSource, a project of the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, follows Egypt’s transition and provides a platform for Egyptian perspectives on the major issues – economic, political, legal, religious and human rights – that are at stake in the post-Mubarak era.
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Faces of Egypt
Journalist and videographer Abanoub Emad explains the drive behind his work: “I want to cover the truth..If it was just a job for me I wouldn't risk my life, but this is what I want to do…and this is what differentiates the quality of work. You can tell who's doing it for the sake of doing it, and who's doing it because it's what they love to do”
At twenty-two, Amr El Salanekly has won the 2012 Clinton Global Initiative fellowship, co-founded a social incubator and an educational platform for underprivileged kids, turned down a job with Bangladeshi Nobel Laureate Mohammad Yunus’ Grameen Bank, and raised hundreds of thousands of Egyptian pounds for community projects in Egypt.
Check out the rest of the Faces of the New Egypt series here.
About the Contributors
Alaa Al Aswany, the Arab world's bestselling novelist, is the author of The Yacoubian Building, Chicago, and Friendly Fire. His work is published in thirty-one languages worldwide. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Yussef Auf is an Egyptian judge and 2012 Humphrey Fellow at American University’s Washington College of Law. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Constitutional Law and Political Systems at Cairo University. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Haitham Tabei is a special correspondent for the Washington Post and Asharq Saudi newspaper in Cairo.
Read his EgyptSource posts here.
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