- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
The three-day standoff between General Prosecutor Abdel Meguid Mahmoud and President Mohamed Morsi can be viewed as another attempt by the latter to flex his muscles and appease revolutionary forces. However, thanks in part to a media uproar, Morsi’s gamble backfired.
Nasser Amin, head of the Arab Center for the Independence of the Judiciary, places the blame on the president’s advisor and aides. He explains that Morsi was advised to dismiss Mahmoud, assuming that anger towards the camel battle verdicts would blind the public towards any infringement of the judiciary’s independence.
Thursday’s decision to appoint Mahmoud ambassador to the Vatican was clearly aimed at defusing public anger following the acquittal of the defendants in the infamous Camel Battle case. But Morsi was let down by the public support he had banked on.
After headlines suggesting that Morsi had sacked Mahmoud were met with anger and accusations that Morsi had breached the judiciary’s independence, he was forced to backtrack.
On Saturday, media reported that the president repealed a decision to appoint Mahmoud ambassador to the Vatican following a meeting with the Supreme Judicial Council, playing it off as a “misunderstanding.”
A disgruntled Mahmoud gave strongly-worded statements to the media saying he will hold on to his position to protect judiciary independence and to prevent the interference of the executive authority. He alleged that he received threats and was pressured by Justice Minister Ahmed Mekky and Chairman of the Constituent Assembly Hossam El-Gheriany to resign.
He addressed Morsi in a press conference Saturday morning, attended by over 3,000 judges in support, saying he will not leave his position unless he is assassinated.
Following cries of foul, reports on Saturday confirmed that Mahmoud is here to stay. In a press conference later that afternoon, Vice President Mahmoud Mekky denied any attempts by Morsi to violate judiciary independence. He criticized the media for suggesting that Mahmoud was “sacked,” adding that he was indeed offered the ambassador position but the latter was “vague” in his response, leading to the confusion.
In statements to MENA, the justice minister also asserted that Mahmoud has not been sacked by the president and that the decision to appoint him ambassador does not necessarily require him to step down.
Legal experts agree that Morsi has no authority to sack the prosecutor general, a power only the Supreme Judicial Council holds. Whether Morsi was aware of that is yet to be determined.
Other experts like Raafat Fouda, a constitutional law professor at Cairo University, suggest that Morsi was led to believe that he had the authority to sack Mahmoud by the justice minister, the vice president and the head of the National Council for Human rights, motivated by personal vendettas.
On the other hand, Gamal Eid, prominent human rights lawyer and executive director of the Arabic Network for Human Rights Information, remains disappointed by the decision to keep Mahmoud in his position.
According to Eid, Morsi cannot legally sack Mahmoud so he offered him the ambassador position and asked him to step down since it is a “public demand.” However, Mahmoud refused.
Eid maintains that the media blew the situation out of proportion and that Morsi never officially expelled Mahmoud.
“The revolution will continue to lose as long as Mahmoud is still Egypt’s prosecutor general,” he added.
A similar shakeup was attempted, albeit successfully, by Morsi last August when he forced Hussein Tantawi, head of the armed forces, and the chief of staff, Sami Anan to retire and canceled the complementary constitutional declaration issued by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces earlier in June.
Dalia Rabie is a journalist based in Cairo. She worked as the Features Editor for Daily News Egypt
Photo Credit: AP
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About the Contributors
Alaa Al Aswany, the Arab world's bestselling novelist, is the author of The Yacoubian Building, Chicago, and Friendly Fire. His work is published in thirty-one languages worldwide. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Yussef Auf is an Egyptian judge and 2012 Humphrey Fellow at American University’s Washington College of Law. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Constitutional Law and Political Systems at Cairo University. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Haitham Tabei is a special correspondent for the Washington Post and Asharq Saudi newspaper in Cairo.
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