- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
As Egyptians have kept a watchful eye on President Mohamed Morsi’s first 30 days in office, this past weekend, he was finally able to cross one item off the election promise checklist. Turning an eye on Egypt’s garbage problem, Morsi’s project has been quite reminiscent of a clean-up initiative that took place in February, 2011.
The day after former president Hosni Mubarak stepped down, Egypt witnessed a short-lived revolution that had nothing to do with politics. Starting in Tahrir, and slowly spilling out to the rest of Cairo, and Egypt, citizens took to the streets in an impressive clean-up campaign. In what appeared to be a spontaneous and collective effort, we saw Tahrir swept and hosed clean, removing any trace of the 18 day uprising. Throughout the city, children and adults alike took to the streets, cleaning, painting sidewalks, and even misguidedly painting every tree trunk in sight. Bright red, white and black splotches of paint were everywhere, in a sudden display of patriotism rivaled only by the brief outbursts witnessed during major football matches.
This past weekend, newly elected President Mohamed Morsi seemed to be trying to rekindle some of that excitement, along with that newfound sense of ownership of their country that people felt. Morsimeter, a site tracking the first 100 days of Morsi’s presidency had remained dismally bare, with none of his 63 promises fulfilled. The site has finally moved up one notch with the launch of an awareness campaign on littering. The so-called ‘Clean Homeland’ campaign is one which the president plans to make permanent.
The initial stages of the campaign consisted of over 100,000 volunteers taking part in a heavy duty two-day cleaning campaign. Reports from the president’s office state that 203,000 tons of construction debris and 120,000 tons of garbage were cleaned up in 22 of Egypt’s 27 governorates. Mohamed Morsi’s official spokesman, Yasser Ali, stated that the campaign achieved 60% of its goals during those two days.
While the campaign has been met with some ridicule, with many saying that there are far more pressing issues to be dealt with, it has to be said that Egypt’s mounting garbage problem is certainly nothing to be scoffed at.
The problem with Morsi’s campaign, however, is that he is attempting to harness a spirit in the general public that barely lasted a month – one that involves a sense of ownership not only over the decisions made by their president, but also a sense of ownership of the country they live in.
Egyptians, for a brief time, felt that their contribution, no matter how small could make a difference. That sentiment has faded; much in the same way that voter turnout continues to dwindle with each time people make their way to the polling stations.
The second, and more serious, problem with Morsi’s campaign is that it depends on the mobilization of the general public – and is a cosmetic solution at best. After the initial cleanup fervor of post-January 25 wore off, the garbage was quick to pile up again in the streets because these kinds of campaigns are a temporary fix to a very permanent problem.
As Egypt entered months of transition, following the uprising, it did not take long for the paint to fade under the pollution and grime of the city, and for shop owners and caretakers to be concerned only with that small patch of land in front of their buildings and stores. Anything beyond the borders of their personal space became someone else’s problem. The same will undoubtedly happen with Morsi’s campaign.
While public awareness is very much an integral part to solving Egypt’s garbage collection problem, the solution does not lie in weekend-projects, but rather in the implementation of a system that truly addresses the issue at hand, through the implementation of litter laws, and the creation of a nation-wide state-sponsored organization equipped to deal with the problem on a permanent basis.
Photo Credit: Roy Gunnels
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EgyptSource, a project of the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, follows Egypt’s transition and provides a platform for Egyptian perspectives on the major issues – economic, political, legal, religious and human rights – that are at stake in the post-Mubarak era.
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Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
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