- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
Egyptian Organization for Human Rights Report: 'Intellectual Terrorism and the Policy of Censorship'Nancy Messieh | August 17, 2012
The Egyptian Organization for Human Rights released a 63 page report (Arabic) "Intellectual Terrorism and the Policy of Censorship", focusing on the state of press freedom in Egypt, beginning with the January 2011 uprising up until the present day.
The EOHR report lists 212 violations against members of the press including the ill-treatment of journalists, cases of assault, legal action, both through the filing of complaints with the Attorney General and summoning journalists before the country’s military courts, the seizing of equipment and newspapers, and more.
The report also refers to the Reporters without Borders Press Freedom Index for 2011/2012, in which Egypt dropped 39 spots to 166th out of 179 countries, as a result of repressive tactics used by the Supreme Council of the Armed forces.
While the Minister of Information has promised changes to Egypt’s state media, guaranteeing journalists’ rights, the EOHR gave 10 recommendations on what needs to be done to address the issue, which they phrased as follows:
1 – A request to the current President, Mohamed Morsi, that his government adopt effective measures towards the promotion of the freedom of expression and the freedom of the press while working towards the overall expansion of the freedoms available to professional journalism and the eradication of any restrictive impositions.
2 – A request that the appropriate authorities adopt all legal measures available to ensure the personal safety of media professionals from detention, attack, or murder, their protection from arbitrary exposure, surveillances, or repression, and especially as concerns those professionals whose opinions oppose the current religious mainstream.
3 – A requested revision of the current legislation that addresses the freedoms of the press and the freedoms that affect the media in general – written, electronic, visual, and audio. This revision is necessary so long as the current legislation does not grant media autonomy nor ensure its rights to expressive freedoms, or the independent freedoms of information gathering and publication, or the right of the media profession to independently organize and unionize. New legislation is urged to address the autonomy of the Journalists Syndicate, the free exchange of information, and the creation of a comprehensive media syndicate.
4 – A requested inclusion of a Constitutional text that will enshrine the freedom and autonomy of the media as well as the freedom of the press in specific. In this regard, the report also requests that international media standards be implemented in domestic legislation and policies concerning the editorial aspects of the media as well as their sources of funding. Furthermore, the report calls for the revision of the system of ownership that affects State owned media sources, and the enhancement of the relationship between the Egyptian media and Egypt’s citizens – allowing for the individual’s right to the freedom of expression.
5 –A request to open the ownership of media sources and publication to the public – in accordance with the system of notification; thereby allowing for the expressive rights of unions, various parties, other legal persons, and the average Egyptian citizen. The report also includes a request for the State to revise its ownership of various media institutes so as to avoid the monopolization of the media by any single party or individual.
6 – A request to immediately end the imprisonment of journalists in relation to publication cases along with the sufficing of monetary penalties. Also, the report suggests that a media charter be created as a guideline for professional media conduct; the revision of legislation and policies concerning relevant administrative and financial bodies so as to avoid the occurrence of corruption within media institutes; and the creation of internalized monitoring mechanisms within those institutes – including the annual self-publication of financial reports.
7 –A request to eradicate all of the impositions restricting open access to information, and the institutionalization of legislation that will promote transparency and the open and easy access of citizens to all of the information that is relevant to public interest. The report requests that legislation be issued to protect the public right to access information to the extent that it is fully compatible with a democratic society.
8 – A request to end the Shura Council’s direct control over the media and the creation of an autonomous national council responsible for the management of media affairs.
9 - A request to end all restrictions currently imposed upon the freedom of expression, the freedom of the press, and the freedom of broadcasting, and the free and open exchange of information. Also, the report requests that decisions to close down the operations of satellite television channels be issued from a judicial authority and not be implemented as a mere administrative action.
10 – A request to enhance the standard of living of media professionals by ensuring their economic and social well-being and the establishment of a minimum wage.
The full report can be downloaded, in Arabic, here.
Photo by AP: Egyptian journalists gag their mouths with tape during a protest in front of the Journalists Syndicate in Cairo, Egypt, May 9, 2012.
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EgyptSource, a project of the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, follows Egypt’s transition and provides a platform for Egyptian perspectives on the major issues – economic, political, legal, religious and human rights – that are at stake in the post-Mubarak era.
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Faces of Egypt
Journalist and videographer Abanoub Emad explains the drive behind his work: “I want to cover the truth..If it was just a job for me I wouldn't risk my life, but this is what I want to do…and this is what differentiates the quality of work. You can tell who's doing it for the sake of doing it, and who's doing it because it's what they love to do”
At twenty-two, Amr El Salanekly has won the 2012 Clinton Global Initiative fellowship, co-founded a social incubator and an educational platform for underprivileged kids, turned down a job with Bangladeshi Nobel Laureate Mohammad Yunus’ Grameen Bank, and raised hundreds of thousands of Egyptian pounds for community projects in Egypt.
Check out the rest of the Faces of the New Egypt series here.
About the Contributors
Alaa Al Aswany, the Arab world's bestselling novelist, is the author of The Yacoubian Building, Chicago, and Friendly Fire. His work is published in thirty-one languages worldwide. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Yussef Auf is an Egyptian judge and 2012 Humphrey Fellow at American University’s Washington College of Law. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Constitutional Law and Political Systems at Cairo University. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Haitham Tabei is a special correspondent for the Washington Post and Asharq Saudi newspaper in Cairo.
Read his EgyptSource posts here.
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