- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - December 9, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Final Draft of Constitution, published November 29, 2012 (Arabic) (English) (Audio)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Decree - November 22, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 24, 2012) (Arabic)
- Draft of the Constitution, published October 16, 2012 (Arabic) (English)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Decree Pardoning January 25 Prisoners - October 8 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi's Constitutional Declaration - August 12 (English) (Arabic)
- President Mohamed Morsi’s Decree reinstating the dissolved parliament – July 8 (English) (Arabic)
- Renaissance (Nahda) Project (English)
- Morsi Meter (English) (Arabic)
- SCAF Amendments to Interim Constitution - June 17, 2012 (English) (Arabic)
- Interim Constitution (full text, English and Arabic), ratified by popular referendum on March 23, 2011)
- Law on the Presidential Election, No. 174, 2005 (Arabic)
- Electoral laws for the People’s Assembly and Shura Council (full text, Arabic, amended July 19, 2011)
- Law on Non-Governmental Organizations, No. 84/2002 (English)
- Law on the People’s Assembly, amended October 2011 (PDF, Arabic)
- Supra-Constitutional Principles (English) (Arabic)
- The Final Draft Wording of the Articles on Defense and National Security in the New Constitution (English) (Arabic)
- Leaked Articles of the Draft Constitution (English)
Egyptian Government Resources
- Official Facebook page of President Mohamed Morsi (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Prime Minister Hesham Qandil (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of Presidential Spokesman Yasser Ali (Arabic)
- Official Facebook page of the Supreme Council of the Armed forces (Arabic)
- Official website of the Cabinet (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Interior (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of Finance (English) (Arabic)
- Ministry of International Cooperation (Arabic)
- Ministry of Social Solidarity (Arabic)
- Ministry of Information (Arabic)
- Ministry of Industry & Foreign Trade (English) (Arabic)
- Ahram Weekly (English)
- Egypt Independent (English)
- Daily News Egypt (English)
- Ahram Online (English)
- Akhbar al-Youm (Arabic)
- Ahram (Arabic)
- Ahram Gateway (Arabic)
- al-Masry al-Youm (Arabic)
- al-Shorouk (Arabic)
- al-Wafd (Arabic)
- Masrawy (Arabic)
- EGYNews (Arabic)
Think Tanks and NGOs:
- al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (English)
- Arab Forum for Alternatives (English) (Arabic)
- Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (English) (Arabic)
- Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights (English) (Arabic)
- Adl (Justice)
- al-Asala (Authenticity)
- Building and Development
- Democratic Front
- al-Dostour (Constitution)
- Freedom and Justice
- Ghad (Tomorrow)
- Ittihad (Union)
- Karama (Dignity)
- al-Masriyin al-Ahrar (Free Egyptians)
- Masr al-Hurriya (Egypt Freedom)
- Nour (Light)
- Popular Alliance
- Reform and Development
- Social Democratic
- Sufi Liberation
- al-Tayar al-Masry (Egyptian Current)
On June 18, the Muslim Brotherhood claimed victory for its presidential candidate, Mohamed Morsy, with 52.5 percent of the vote compared to Ahmed Shafik's 47.5 percent, with almost all votes counted. The announcement came just hours after the SCAF issued amendments to the interim constitution that undermine presidential powers while giving the military legislative authority in the absence of an elected Parliament and immunity from civilian oversight.
Although final election results are not expected until June 19, Morsy has already given a preliminary victory speech, in which he thanked God for guiding "Egypt to this straight path, the path of freedom and democracy.” Morsy vowed to represent all Egyptians, including those who had voted against him, as well as Coptic Christians. However, Ahmed Shafik's campaign has accused the Brotherhood of calling the game too soon, predicting that Shafik is still on track to win the presidency with an estimated 51 to 53 percent of the vote. Shafik's spokesman, Ahmed Sarhan, accused the Brotherhood of trying to deceive the public before all of the ballots have been counted: "Morsi's campaign is spreading fake news of victory in order to be able to claim vote-rigging when Shafik wins."
Morsy's likely victory escalates a looming confrontation between the SCAF and Brotherhood over the former's unilateral intervention in the constitutional process and usurpation of legislative powers following the dissolution of Parliament by a Supreme Constitutional Court ruling last week. The Brotherhood-affiliated speaker of the Parliament, Saad al-Katatny, has already challenged the decision, claiming that the military has no right to appoint a new constituent assembly (which it did on June 18, according to media reports) or dissolve Parliament, which can only be done through a popular referendum, Katatny said, citing historical precedents in 1987 and 1990.
Although the SCAF has deployed military and riot police to bar law-makers from entering the Parliament building, the leader of the Brotherhood's parliamentary bloc warned that MPs would arrive for their next session, scheduled for June 19. Meanwhile, Saad al-Katatny revealed that Parliament has selected its own 100-member Constituent Assembly to write a new constitution, which will begin meeting shortly to draw up a draft for the new charter. After mililtary police barred two MPs from entering the Parliament building on June 15, the head of the legislative affairs committee, Mahmoud Khodeiry, said that law-makers were already making plans to convene elsewhere if necessary -- reminiscent of the short-lived "hotel Parliament" that began meeting in Cairo's Continental Hotel after the 1925 Wafd-led Parliament was dissolved by royal decree.
Morsy's expected victory will give the Brotherhood more leverage to oppose the dissolution of Parliament, whether or not they have legal grounds to do so. Mokhtar El Ashry, head of the legal committee of the Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), said the party had been banking on Morsy's victory to fight against the dissolution of Parliament, citing precedents in Egyptian law that empower the president to settle disputes between the branches of government.
But it is too soon to declare victory for the Brotherhood, which is already being assailed with allegations of electoral fraud from the campaign of the losing candidate, Ahmed Shafik, as well as the judges supervising the election. Shafik has not yet conceded to Morsy, but his campaign manager issued a written statement accusing the Brotherhood of a range of "systematic election violations" including tearing down Shafik posters, bribing and intimidating voters, and ballot fraud. Meanwhile, supervising judges -- the vast majority appointed under Mubarak's rule --held press conferences during the voting process apparently aimed at deterring voters from supporting Morsy.
Before the polls had even closed, supervising judges accused the Brotherhood of infiltrating an official printing facility to produce counterfeit ballots pre-marked for Morsy, a rumor that was later dismissed by state media. Hatem Bagato, the general secretary of the Supreme Presidential Electoral Commission (SPEC), publicly accused the Brotherhood of planning violenace after three of its members were arrested outside of a polling station in possession of a laptop computer containing images of foreign military training operations. The Brotherhood has since denied any connection to the laptop’s owners or any plans for violence and threatened to sue the SPEC for violating electoral regulations by defaming Morsy during the polling process.
But the allegations, whether true or not, suggest that Morsy's narrow margin of victory -- if confirmed by the electoral commission -- could by challenged very soon.
Mara Revkin is the editor of EgyptSource.
Photo Credit: Getty
Trackback URL for this post:
EgyptSource, a project of the Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, follows Egypt’s transition and provides a platform for Egyptian perspectives on the major issues – economic, political, legal, religious and human rights – that are at stake in the post-Mubarak era.
If you are interested in submitting an article for publication on EgyptSource, please send an inquiry via email with a short outline of your idea.
The views expressed in EgyptSource are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Atlantic Council, its staff, or its supporters.
Follow us on Twitter: @EgyptSource
Click here to sign up for the weekly EgyptSource newsletter.
Faces of Egypt
Journalist and videographer Abanoub Emad explains the drive behind his work: “I want to cover the truth..If it was just a job for me I wouldn't risk my life, but this is what I want to do…and this is what differentiates the quality of work. You can tell who's doing it for the sake of doing it, and who's doing it because it's what they love to do”
At twenty-two, Amr El Salanekly has won the 2012 Clinton Global Initiative fellowship, co-founded a social incubator and an educational platform for underprivileged kids, turned down a job with Bangladeshi Nobel Laureate Mohammad Yunus’ Grameen Bank, and raised hundreds of thousands of Egyptian pounds for community projects in Egypt.
Check out the rest of the Faces of the New Egypt series here.
About the Contributors
Alaa Al Aswany, the Arab world's bestselling novelist, is the author of The Yacoubian Building, Chicago, and Friendly Fire. His work is published in thirty-one languages worldwide. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Yussef Auf is an Egyptian judge and 2012 Humphrey Fellow at American University’s Washington College of Law. He is currently pursuing a PhD in Constitutional Law and Political Systems at Cairo University. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Amr Hamzawy joined the Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo in 2011, where he continues to serve today. He is a former member of parliament and a member of the National Salvation Front. Read his EgyptSource posts here.
Haitham Tabei is a special correspondent for the Washington Post and Asharq Saudi newspaper in Cairo.
Read his EgyptSource posts here.
- The Arabist
- Abu Aardvark (Marc Lynch)
- A Sense of Belonging
- Dalia Ziada
- Daniel W. Drezner
- Democracy Digest
- The Egypt Report
- Egyptian Chronicles
- Felix Arabia
- Foreign Policy Passport
- Foreign Policy Association
- Hossam El-Hamalawy
- MEI Editor’s Blog
- Middle East Post
- Middle East Progress (CAP)
- POMED Wire
- Rantings of a Sandmonkey